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How to Purify Drinking Water on Camping Trips and Disaster Situations

I'm a dad, husband, and Christian first. Second, I'm an educator & organizational development professional.

Camping Drinking Water

Camping is an outdoor adventure that every person should try at least once. Of course, it’s not for all, but spending time in the wilderness is definitely a special experience. However, gone are the days when you can simply dunk your head into a stream and enjoy its refreshing drinking water.

Another situation where you need clean drinking water is during disaster situations. Some countries are less fortunate than others. The Philippines, for example, gets numerous typhoons in a year that causes floods. A major concern during these times is securing clean drinking water.

Contamination of the water supply is a serious threat to life. Of course, there are still places where nature provides safe drinking water. Unfortunately employing water purification methods is a prudent course of action. Remember, the toxic and biological threat is real.

The U.S. Armed forces are taught basic survival training with much emphasis on securing water supply. You don’t need to go to a boot camp and train like you’re out to get terrorists to learn water purification methods.

Boiling water is still one of the best ways to make safe drinking water

Boiling water is still one of the best ways to make safe drinking water

Water Purification Method 1: Boiling

The Wilderness Medical Society recommends boiling water as it kills all pathogens. What is important to remember is that altitude affects the boiling point of water. At sea level, the boiling point of water is 2120F. However, the higher you go, the lower the boiling point of water. Keep in mind that at 1600F you need to boil water for at least 30 minutes.

Special considerations:

Although boiling is a great way to kill microorganisms, it is by no means a reliable way to take out particulate matters and impurities.

Water Purification Method 2: Iodine Treatment

Iodine treatment is a common way to chemically treat water. Compared to chlorine-based techniques, iodine is better at stopping Giardia (a common cause of intestinal problems).

Add 5 drops of liquid 2% iodine for every quart of water. But if the water is cloudy, you can add as many as 10 drops. For iodine crystals and tablets, simply follow the manufacturer.

Special considerations:

Not recommended for – pregnant or lactating moms, people over 50, and people with thyroid problems. Use chorine treatment instead.

Filter Size Matters

MicroorganismFilter SizeFilter Type


1.0 - 4.0 microns

water filter


0.2 - 1.0 microns



less than 0.004 microns

water purifier

Water Purification Method 3: Filtration

The filtration method is another water purification method you can do when camping. As the name implies, the basic idea is to let water pass through a membrane to get rid of unwanted particulates and even microorganisms.

Special considerations:

Remove as many sediments as possible before running your drinking water through the filter. This will avoid clogging your filter.

A sample of solar distillation set up

A sample of solar distillation set up

Water Purification Method 4: Solar Distillation

This method uses the heat of the sun to evaporate water. Then using a film or plastic sheet, the water vapor condenses and you simply collect it. This method is actually slow but when in dire situations, even the smallest amount of water matters a lot.

Special considerations:

Make sure your containers and materials are clean. Sanitize them before purifying the water. Otherwise, your effort will be futile.

Closing Thoughts

It is always best to have at least two water purification methods at hand. Having a fall back will ensure that you have safe drinking water. Water-borne diseases are a serious threat. As such, always exercise prudence and caution to avoid infection, sickness or death.

The threat to health and safety is real. But don’t buy a hazmat suit just yet. The water purifying methods above can provide safe drinking water.

This content is accurate and true to the best of the author’s knowledge and is not meant to substitute for formal and individualized advice from a qualified professional.

© 2012 JP Carlos


Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on September 01, 2015:


That's what I like to hear.

God bless.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on August 31, 2015:

Hello Huntgoddess,

We live in a place where earthquakes are expected. We are just preparing for the big one. And when we prepare and learn the needed skills we can survive.

Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on August 20, 2015:

Oh, dear. :-((

I am so sorry to hear that, jpcmc! I hope you and yours are all well? I think I read about that earthquake. I always pray when I read these things that happen to my fellow humans. We are all one family. That is why I am so grateful for this Hub.

Yes, no doubt preparation is always good.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on August 17, 2015:

Our city recently had an earthquake drill along with other disaster situations. It was a preparation for the big one that might happen. I think it is a good move to help people prepare.

Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on August 17, 2015:

Yes, I hope nobody gets into that emergency situation.

Thanks again, jpcmc.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on August 16, 2015:

Hi there Huntgoddess, thank you for the kind words. You are right water is important. I do hope you don't get into any situation where you need to resort to emergency tactics for water. But if you do, I hope the hub gives you some ideas to survive. See you around.

Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on August 07, 2015:

Still love this Hub! It's one of the most important things in all life. Drinking water!

I like to come back and review the information in this Hub every once in a while, just to ensure I don't forget it. Memorize!!

LOL, Thanks for such a great service. It makes a big difference to the entire world.

God bless.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on August 05, 2015:

Hello there Akriti Mattu,

Thank you for the vote up. I do hope this hub is useful to you or people you know.

Akriti Mattu from Shimla, India on June 26, 2015:

Very well written. Voted up :)

Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on May 12, 2015:

Yes, we all need good old H2 o!! Wherever we are!

It's great, though, that you have all these comments.

It's also a great Hub with great information.

Thanks, jpcmc. Keep in touch.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on May 11, 2015:

Hi there Huntgoddess

Nice of you to drop by. I'm just lucky to have written about a topic that many find interesting.

Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on May 11, 2015:

Pippap: Yes, I'd love to have a Hub with so many comments like this.


Great topic!

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on May 11, 2015:

Hola csmiravite-blogs

When I was younger I used to go camping and mountain climbing. Looking and preparing clean water is a must. Thanks for the vote up.

Consolacion Miravite from Philippines on May 11, 2015:

This is important to learn in case there is no potable water in sight. Great hub, JP! Voted up!

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 16, 2014:

Hello there pippap,

Thank you for visiting and joining in the discussions and comments. I appreciate the kind word. But more importantly, I hope the information help you out. It's never to early or too late to be prepared.

pippap from Surrey, BC on March 15, 2014:

What a mass of comments! I'm not surprised, though, excellent, informative article. Voted up.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on May 19, 2013:

HI Michael Eliot,

Many use bleach for this purpose. In anything we do, we must be careful. Not all bleach products have the same contents or even concentrations.

Michael Leach from Rosarito Beach, Baja, Norte, Mexico on May 18, 2013:

Will do jpcmc! One added note about "bleach" being used for water purification. I live in Baja Norte, Mexico. It is common practice here in Mexican households to use a tablespoon of bleach in a gallon of water to wash vegetables (lettuce, tomatoes, chili peppers, etc.) prior to eating. I was shocked when I first saw this, but have learned that it's not all that unusual.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on May 17, 2013:

Hi there Michael Eliot,

I appreciate the kind words. The knowledge and skill in purifying drinking water is important. I hope you help spread the word.

Michael Leach from Rosarito Beach, Baja, Norte, Mexico on May 17, 2013:

This article presents a wealth of important information. Congratulations on a well-researched, well-written, and much-needed summary!! Well done!

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 01, 2013:

Point taken loud and clear Sandy. I personally go for chlorine or iodine drops myself.

sandy on March 01, 2013:

Portable UV treatment is a Croc of shite .... trust me I know... I install UV treatment systems for pathogen control in water for industrial use (food supply), even with unlimited banks of filaments, and unlimited power it's noty very effective , go with Chlorine or Iodine drops.

John Paolo Magdaluyo from Philippine on February 22, 2013:

really looking forward for it. and ill be telling you when that comes maybe you'll published new staff about it

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on February 21, 2013:

Hello PaoloJpm,

Nice to see such enthusiasm for the great outdoors. Enjoy and remain safe my friend.

John Paolo Magdaluyo from Philippine on February 21, 2013:

wow, cool.Looking forward to do those things for camping safery

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on November 13, 2012:

Hello Capt Anjum Ansari,

I appreciate the kind words and clicking the goodies about the hub. The right knowledge will always save someone's life.

HotArticle from Allen, TX on November 12, 2012:

Its a very useful information about water purification every body know this in case...Great hub! Voting for Useful,Awesome,Interesting :)

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on October 21, 2012:

Hi Jacob,

Although bleach contains ingredients that can kill microorganism, it is best to use commercially available water purification systems. Bleach is not designed for this purpose.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on October 21, 2012:


It's nice to spend time with your family. Being safe while at it is very important. I hope you can apply some of the techniques above. And yes, clear water does not mean it's safe to drink. Have a great day.

Jacob on October 21, 2012:

I read once you can use bleach to purify water. Can we still do that? on October 19, 2012:

camping is popular in Australia so this hub was very useful - when I take the kids camping we will apply some of this. We sometimes go swimming in the mountains - the water seems to be really clean but I guess you never quite know and should take precautions. thanks jpcmc!

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on October 18, 2012:

Hi Analyn,

I know what you mean. The national government are aware of the importance of the providing the basic needs especially during disaster situations. But everyone should not simply wait. They must look for ways to get clean water.

Analyn on October 18, 2012:

Hi sir, I just chanced upon this article of yours. I think it's really important especially in the Philippines where typhoons are common. During this time many communities don't get even the basic needs like water. Times like these, we need to look for alternative ways to provide drinking water.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on October 09, 2012:

Hi frogyfish,

Yes, we need clean water. Many companies are capitalizing on this need and are providing numerous products. Of course its good that there are easier ways to get clean water. But some are too expensive for the common person. The long term solution is keeping our water supply clean, lessening waste and pollution. Thanks for dropping by and sharing. See you around.

frogyfish from Central United States of America on October 08, 2012:

Helpful tips for unexpected or emergency need. I saw one person suggested UV which is great if you carry one. Also can use collodial silver, and those brand new water filters given to Haiti...seems some celebrity gave them away...don't remember what they are called. We will always need clean water.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on August 21, 2012:

Hi idigwebsites,

Having the knowledge and skill to purify water is essential to survival. we often neglect the fact that water is basic to life. When disster strikes, we are often left to fend for ourselves.

idigwebsites from United States on August 20, 2012:

This is a very useful hub. It can be really helpful for those who can't have access to potable water. Very, very good article. Keep it up! :D

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on August 15, 2012:

Yes Lisa, the heavy and continuous rains resulted to flooding of key places in Manila. Many families had to be evacuated. Unfortunately, not everyone was fortunate enough to save their stuff. In the evacuation centers there is lack of clean drinking water and other basic needs.

Lisa on August 15, 2012:

The recent rains in the Philippines brought floods everywhere. Many of my officemates had to buy water just to make sure they are drinking clean water.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on July 04, 2012:

Hello Olde Cashmere,

Thanks for dropping by and reading. I do hope you don't find yourself in a situation that requires imnprovising. But should you be in this pickle, at least these tips can help you.

Olde Cashmere on July 03, 2012:

Thank you jpcmc for sharing these useful tips on securing healthy drinking water. This is excellent and will come in handy. Voted up, awesome, and useful.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on June 13, 2012:

Hello mary615,

Bottled water is always safer. But during disasters and emergency situations we sometimes need to improvise. Safe drinking water on the other hand should not be taken lightly. Chlorox does contain chlorine and can kill some microbes. However, getting the right mix of cholox and water can be tricky. You can use safer alternatives like chlorine tablets or iodine treatment kits from camping supplies. A filter system is also simple to use.

Thanks for the vote up etc. See you around and have a great day.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on June 13, 2012:

Hi Trionoide,

Although this was written for camping, the info here can be used in many other scenarios. I'm glad the hub was useful to you.

Mary Hyatt from Florida on June 13, 2012:

This Hub deserved to be HOTD! Full of useful info. Here in S. Fl. we have hurricanes and try to stock up on water. We are told to fill the bathtub before the storm and add Cholorox in case we need to drink that water or use it for cooking. I try and stock up on bottled water before the storms comes, though. I'll vote this Hub UP etc.

Trionoide from Ireland on June 11, 2012:

I was in Nepal recently, the information here was very useful. Thanks for that.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on April 19, 2012:

Hi there Turtlewoman. I used to camp a lot. Finding drinking water can be difficult. It pays to know how to purify drinking water. I appreciate the vote up and the visit. See you around.

Kim Lam from California on April 19, 2012:

This is a really helpful article! I'm a big camper and have never really thought about purifying my own water. Voted up and beyond. This will come in handy if I ever run out of water on my camping trips.

FiltersFastLLC from Monroe, North Carolina on April 12, 2012:

No problem! Great hub and great tips! Keep up the good work.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on April 09, 2012:

Thank you for the kinds words FiltersFastLLC.

FiltersFastLLC from Monroe, North Carolina on April 05, 2012:

Fantastic hub! Great tips on purifying water. Something everyone should keep in mind when camping. Good job!

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 18, 2012:

Hi jjs. I'm glad my hub reminded you of your granny. Solar Distillation is really an effective way to purify water. After reading your post, I'm actually considering digging a pit in my yard.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 18, 2012:

Thanks thumbi7. I just hope I can write something useful and worth reading again in the future. :)

jjs on March 18, 2012:

Loved reading this hub. Reminded me of my old Granny who had a "water pit" dug in the yard into which she would put water into a tub. Into the tub, she placed a clean pail with clean rocks in the bottm to hold the pail down. Over all this she hung an old fashioned waterproof tarp with another rock set in the middle to make it sag, it's lowest point directly over the pail. As the day passed the water in the tub evaporated just as you described, only to condense on the underside of the tarp, run down to the low point and drip into the pail. In the early morning, she collected a pail full of water and began the process over again. The water in the pail was used strictly for drinking and sometimes for cooking. I hadn't thought of Granny and her water pit for more than 40 years! Thanks for the trip down memory lane.

JR Krishna from India on March 16, 2012:

Congratulations for the Hub of the Day award

It is a very useful hub with lot of practical tips.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 14, 2012:

HI Mike. Just make sure that th plastic you will use for the solar distillation is clean. Thanks for reading and commenting.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 14, 2012:

Hello yesi. I hope the memories i brought back were good ones. :) I appreciate the kind words. I'd like to read some of your experiences with Amway. I'm sure you have lots of stories to tell.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 14, 2012:

HI there Arthur. This hub is definitely for the camping enthusiast. But its applications go beyond merely camping trips. In disaster situations this will really come in handy. Thanks for reading and commenting.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 14, 2012:

Hello TIMETRAVELER2. Thanks for reading the hub and the kind remarks. Water is essential so securing clean drinking water is important. The skill to purify dirty or contaminated water will prove useful.

MIke on March 13, 2012:

I like the way plastic sheet is used for purification. Good hub!

yesi on March 13, 2012:

This article reminds of the days I was in Amway doing presentations. I totally enjoyed it and Congratulations of HOTD. It was very information and well thoughout too. Thanks for such care and time you put in it.

Arthur Dacena on March 13, 2012:

This is very useful. I love camping and this will help.

Sondra Rochelle from USA on March 13, 2012:

This is extremely important information for campers to have. Good job!

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 11, 2012:

@LucidDreams, PapaGeorgeo , Huntgoddess, moneycop, urmilashukla23, thanks for reading the hub.

@ seekingpeace91 it’s nice that you can use the information in the hub. There are always new techniques and technology that we can use. If you find anything new share it with all of us.

@Trionoide. I’m sorry but I’m not familiar with the camping supplies market in Dublin. But you can check online sites or your local camping shops. Some sporting shops may carry them as well.

@vespawoolf contaminated water is definitely scary. These methods will surely help.

@MarleneB Boiling kills pathogens. But the drawback is that it does not filter out sediments in the water.

@Lenzy I guess the cost is worth it if you’re considering your health and safe drinking water.

@Donna Huebsch thanks for dropping by and commenting. Sharing the hub is much appreciated. I hope your family and friends find the information useful.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 11, 2012:

@ TENKAY, susanm23b, thanks for kind words. I hope I can write something useful and informative again.

@Civil War Bob. At least you’re not the one lactating. ?

@ kelleyward. There are numerous ways to purify water. I just presented some of the methods. I’m sure others can add to the list. Thanks for reading and commenting.

@ tbrian123 , homesteadbound, FordeAhern , thanks for reading and commenting.

@Monica Paller. Yes, I’ve heard of that. But I’ve not personally used it. Perhaps you can write a hub on that.

@ Suhail and my dog Hi there, thanks for your comments. Iodine treatment is one of the most widely used methods. Just don’t forget to follow the manufacturer’s instructions.

@ Naima Manal, Paradise7, vasmenon, tammyfrost, Thank you for your kind words. People should know at least the basics of making clean drinking water – whether one is a camping enthusiast or not.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 11, 2012:

Hello Dannette, thanks for reading and commenting on the hub. Everyone should learn how to purify water. Whether it's for camping or just day to day drinking water. the right methods will ensure safety.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 11, 2012:

@ RTalloni., Thelma Alberts, Dr Kavita Shaikh, Thanks for the comment. It really pays to know how to secure clean drinking water.

@ Jennifer Stone. I love camping as well, but I don’t get the chance to camp nowadays. I hope you can use the methods I’ve described in this hub.

@ chamilj. I appreciate your comments. I’m glad you found it useful

Danette Watt from Illinois on March 11, 2012:

Congrats on Hub of the Day. I think learning how to purify water is an important skill to learn/remember and not just for when you're camping. A natural disaster can also put your water supply in jeopardy so it's good to know these methods.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 11, 2012:

Thanks. The more people who know how to purify water, the better. Although bottled water is already available, but when camping, you just don't see any convenience stores in the mountains or camp site. Mooreovr, these methods will come in handy during emergency situations.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 11, 2012:

Thank you everybody for the kind words. I'll try my best to reply to all but, allow me to share my sincerest thanks to all.

JP Carlos (author) from Quezon CIty, Phlippines on March 11, 2012:

hello xamaria. I do that A well. Now that I have a baby, I can't seem to live without prurified drinking water. I even get commercially available sterilized water in BPA-free bottles for my baby.

Loveofnight Anderson from Baltimore, Maryland on March 11, 2012:

information worthy of passing on,thank you for sharing.

Tammy Winters from Oregon on March 10, 2012:

Great Information...very helpful!

Vasanthan R Menon from India on March 10, 2012:

Very informative article indeed!!!! Thank you voting up

moneycop from JABALPUR on March 10, 2012:

not only u made an effort but also a unique one. people mostly are in such situation where they didn't get clean water. it's a very good effort and full of helpful information..thanks

Liz Elias from Oakley, CA on March 10, 2012:

Congratulations on Hub of the Day! Well done!

You made some excellent points, and gave very clear directions for each method.

(@ xamaria: Although bringing your own water is doable for drive-in campsites, it is not practical for primitive sites or backpacking, where the weight you must carry is an issue. I've known people who go backpacking, and they fill their packs counting ounces!)

Most modern National and State Park campsites have full service plumbing a piped-in drinking water from a safe source.

Voted up, useful, interesting and awesome.

Urmila from Rancho Cucamonga,CA, USA on March 10, 2012:

Very informative hub. Congratulations on Hub Of the Day award.

ThePelton from Martinsburg, WV USA on March 10, 2012:

There are filters that you can get, but some can be expensive, but if you spend a lot of time in the wild, they could be worth your while.

Corey from Northfield, MA on March 10, 2012:

I knew about using bleach and always had concerns about the chlorine...your tips are much better and healthier. thank you for sharing.

Donna Fairley Huebsch from Clearwater, Florida on March 10, 2012:

Congrats on HOTD! Very interesting information - I plan to pass this hub's link to family and friends :o)

Lenzy from Arlington, Texas on March 10, 2012:

The LifeSaver Bottle is pretty new and removes all bacteria, viruses, cysts,parasites, fungi and waterborne pathogens without chemicals. The down side is that it is a pricey $149.99 on, but obviously reusable. This was a great hub with a lot of good information. Thanks, Lenzy

Huntgoddess from Midwest U.S.A. on March 10, 2012:

This is extremely valuable information. Thanks! Congrats on Hub of Day, also.

Marlene Bertrand from USA on March 10, 2012:

Excellent hub. I was especially happy to read that boiling water is still considered a viable means to decontaminate water. Thank you for your well-prepared and helpful article.

Vespa Woolf from Peru, South America on March 10, 2012:

This is a great hub! Although we don't camp, we live in a country where water sanitation is a daily problem. Locals often boil the water, but because it's full of impurities (we live near a copper mine) we prefer to use our distiller. Congratulations on HOTD!

PapaGeorgeo on March 10, 2012:

great hub!

Trionoide from Ireland on March 10, 2012:

thanks for this. Where can I buy iodine tablets in Dublin?

seekingpeace91 on March 10, 2012:

Thanks for this hub- I work at a youth camp, so the information is helpful and great to keep me updated on current methods of water purification for our canoe trips!

FordeAhern from Broadford, Co. Limerick. ireland on March 10, 2012:

congratulations on your hub of the day, very interesting voted up also.

Paradise7 from Upstate New York on March 10, 2012:

Good hub. I do hope people on camping trips realize that most of the water they'd find in a pond or stream has been contaminated by runoff from areas under cultivation; in other words, it contains manure.

LucidDreams from St Petersburg, Florida on March 10, 2012:

Great hub with a nice layout. Good job!

Naima Manal from NY on March 10, 2012:

An article well deserved of the Hub-of-the-Day accolade. I think many people will benefit from knowing ways to treat drinking water -- a skill necessary on camping trips and for at-home emergencies.

Suhail Zubaid aka Clark Kent from Mississauga, ON on March 10, 2012:

Solar distillation (or solar desalination) reminded me of my college project. This is great hub. I think I will opt for Iodine treatment. I have read Alastaire Humphrey's account of his walk through India and he used Iodine of Tincture to treat water.

Cindy Murdoch from Texas on March 10, 2012:

Congratulations on your hub of the day. This is very important information to have.

Monica Paller from Vermont on March 10, 2012:

Nice overview but you've left off one method: UV (ultra violet light) treatment. This is a small and easy to carry device, looks like a pen, that is used in a water bottle. It kills pathogens and takes just a few minutes although it does require batteries. One disadvantage is that it does not filter dirt. Personally, I usually use a pump with filter although for winter camping, melting snow and boiling (along with filtering through a coffee filter or paper towel) works well.

tbrian123 from colombo, Sri Lanka on March 10, 2012:

Good one and very useful article. Thank you.. Voted up!!!

kelleyward on March 10, 2012:

Congrats on the Hub of the Day! Now I know what to do when camping if I need clean water. Thanks!

Civil War Bob from Glenside, Pennsylvania on March 10, 2012:

Well done hub,jpcmc. I had to chuckle that I'm in the same category with pregnant/lactating women as an over 50 guy! ;) I'll add this to my mental hard drive for sure! Enjoy your day.

susanm23b on March 10, 2012:

Congratulations on your Hub of the Day! You have done a great job with this. Your suggestions are very clear and easy to follow. The photos and illustrations really add and enhance your article. Voted up!

TENKAY from Philippines on March 10, 2012:

Very informative hub. Congratulations.

chamilj from Sri Lanka on March 10, 2012:

Very useful article. Voted up!

Dr Kavita Shaikh from MUSCAT on March 10, 2012:

Congrats on being HOTD. Well thought out topic and informative article. Voted up.